[monero-project/monero] Linting for monero based on kovri (#4205)

This PR is supposed to start a conversation around linting in monero. The addition is largely based on Kovri, which has great documentation regarding code style. I think it is good design practice to follow a coding standard, especially if so many different developers provide code. Of course the standard and deviations thereof can be discussed but in the end we should have something which allows us to get the codebase to one coding standard which everyone is (almost) happy with.

Also, whether this text should be in CONTRIBUTING instead of in the README is up for discussion of course.

I do not think linting the whole codebase is possible at the moment, ideally we will get to a point where we can enforce all new commits to automatically get checked with each PR to comply with the then established monero guidelines on every new commit message.
You can view, comment on, or merge this pull request online at:

https://github.com/monero-project/monero/pull/4205

— Commit Summary —

* Linting for monero based on kovri

— File Changes —

M README.md (43)
A contrib/utils/clang-format (19)
A contrib/utils/cppling.cfg (1)

— Patch Links —

https://github.com/monero-project/monero/pull/4205.patch
https://github.com/monero-project/monero/pull/4205.diff

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